A heart attack occurs when blood flow to the heart is greatly reduced or blocked. Blockages are usually due to the accumulation of fat, cholesterol, and other substances in the arteries of the heart (coronary arteries). Fatty deposits containing cholesterol are called plaques.Occasionally, plaques rupture and form clots that block blood flow.
What Is Heart Attack ?
Myocardial infarction (commonly called a heart attack) is a very dangerous condition caused by insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle. Poor blood flow can be caused by a variety of factors, but is usually associated with blockage of one or more of the arteries of the heart Oxygen-rich blood flow in one or more of the coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle is suddenly cut off, preventing parts of the heart muscle from getting enough oxygen. Obstruction usually occurs when plaque ruptures.
What Does a Heart Attack Feels Like
When a heart attack occurs, blood flow to a part of the heart stops or falls far below normal, and that part of the heart muscle is damaged or dies. When parts of the heart die from lack of blood flow and are unable to pump, the entire heart's pumping sequence can be disrupted. This can reduce or even stop blood flow to the rest of the body, which can be fatal if not corrected quickly.
What Are The Symptoms Of Heart Attack
Heart attacks also have different symptoms. Males and those assigned male at birth (AMAB) may have different heart attack symptoms than females and those assigned female at birth (AFAB).
The most commonly reported symptoms of heart attack are:
Chest pain (angina pectoris). This can be mild and feel like discomfort and heaviness, or it can be severe and stabbing. It begins in the chest and spreads (or radiates) to other areas such as the left arm (or both arms), shoulder, neck, chin, back, or hips. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
Sleep disturbance (insomnia).
Nausea and an upset stomach. Heart attacks are often confused with indigestion and heartburn. Palpitations.
Fear or a sense of 'imminent doom'.
Lightheadedness, dizziness or fainting.
What Causes A Heart Attack?
Most heart attacks occur because one of the blood vessels that supplies the heart is blocked. This is mostly caused by plaque, a sticky substance that can build up inside your arteries (much like pouring grease into your kitchen sink clogs your home's plumbing). This buildup is called atherosclerosis.
When a blood clot blocks an artery, it can pull blood out of the heart muscle and cause a heart attack. You can still have a heart attack without blocking, but this is rare and accounts for only about 5% of all heart attacks.
This type of heart attack can occur for the following reasons:
Rare disease: An example of this is a disease that causes abnormal narrowing of blood vessels.
Trauma: These include rupture or rupture of coronary arteries.
Disorders from anywhere on the body: A blood clot or air sac that becomes trapped in a coronary artery (embolism). Electrolyte imbalance.
Eating disorders: Over time, these can damage the heart and eventually lead to heart attacks.
Takotsubo and stress cardiomyopathy.
Abnormal coronary arteries (a congenital heart defect in which the coronary arteries are in a different position than their normal position in the body; compressing them can cause a heart attack).
How Heart Attacks Are Treated?
This can be done in a number of ways, from medications to surgery. Some of the following methods are very likely to be used for treatment.
Supplementary oxygen - People who have difficulty breathing or have low blood oxygen levels are often given supplemental oxygen along with other heart attack treatments. Oxygen can be drawn through a tube just below the nose or through a mask that fits over the nose and mouth. This increases oxygen circulation in the blood and eases the heart.
Meditation - It helps the blood flow continuously and also makes your body and heart relaxed.
Percutaneous coronary intervention - Providers restore blood flow to the affected myocardium using a procedure called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This involves inserting a catheter-based device into a large blood vessel, usually near your thigh or wrist. PCI is an important tool for restoring blood flow, and the earlier it is done, the more likely it is to have a favourable outcome.
Hospitals measure their ability to treat heart attacks using a metric called door-to-balloon time. This is the average time from first arrival to the emergency room to having PCI. PCI requires placing a stent at the site of the blockage to keep the artery open and prevent another blockage at the same site.
Conclusion And How To Reduce Heart Attack?
Most people are familiar with the classic signs of a heart attack, such as chest pain and shortness of breath, but they may not realise that women and older people can experience heart attacks differently. Heart attack symptoms such as indigestion and extreme fatigue appear irrelevant in these groups.Prompt treatment can save lives and prevent permanent heart damage and here are some points from through which you can reduce heart attack
Choose a healthful diet
Limiting alcohol intake
Controlling blood sugar